||Form 4 OPTION Social Studies
(leading to Social Studies SEC 2017)
|1. Youths in a Changing Society
- Definition of youth; adolescence as age of transition from childhood to adulthood; physical and psychological development in youths; quest for identity.
- Role of youths in society: the dilemma faced by youth in maintaining social stability while acting as catalysts of social change.
- Youth and subcultures.
- Challenges faced by youths in a highly competitive society (in studying and employment).
- Social problems faced by youths (substance abuse, teenage pregnancies, attitudes to sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases, deviance and delinquency).
- Youth rehabilitation programmes.
- Youth opportunities: educational opportunities in Malta and abroad; EU educational programmes (Comenius, Youth in Action Programme; Lifelong Learning Programme); student exchange programmes.
- Definition of health.
- A holistic concept of health as referred to in the WHO definition.
- The four determinants of health according to the WHO (the social and economic environment, the physical environment, lifestyle, and individual’s characteristics and behaviours).
- Sustaining a healthy lifestyle (social activity, hygiene, stress management, health care, healthy diet, sports, and regular physical exercise).
- Social causes of illness (health as affected by social conditions, poverty, nutritional deficiencies, stress and lack of safety at work, overcrowded or poorly maintained housing, environmental pollution, and sanitation).
- The healthcare system and health services in Malta: State and private
|3. Welfare and Social Exclusion
- Definition of welfare; welfare as a means of social protection.
- Welfare state and welfare society.
- Forms of welfare: monetary payments; vouchers; subsidies; health services and housing; welfare schemes funded by governments, the Church, and nongovernment organizations; public-private initiatives.
- Different forms of poverty: relative, absolute, material and social; effects of poverty on society.
- Indicators of poverty: levels of education, healthcare, employment, income, environment and housing; food provision; living at the risk of poverty.
|4. Social Stratification and Differentiation
- Definition of social stratification and differentiation.
- Types of social stratification (caste, apartheid, feudal, social class).
- The social class structure (upper, middle, lower).
- Karl Marx and Max Weber on social stratification.
- Gender, ethnic, religious, and regional differences as sources of differentiation; conflicts that may arise from such differences.
- Social differentiation and life chances.
- Social mobility (vertical and horizontal).
- Factors leading to social mobility (occupation, education, social background, marriage).
| 5. Economy, Work and Leisure
- Definition of economy, work and leisure.
- Work ethics.
- Division of labour and social implications of work (social status, financial independence, social interaction, a sense of identity, and. contribution to the economy).
- The transformation of work: preindustrial, industrial, and technological.
- Work and gender, disability, minority/ethnic groups, and age.
- Distribution of occupations according to skill, economic function, or social status.
- The employment structure (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary sectors).
- Economic systems (free market, centralised, and mixed economies).
- Malta’s economy – a mixed economy based largely on the tertiary sector.
- Job mobility and career progression; the role of the Employment and Training Corporation in Malta.
- Unemployment (causes and effects) and poverty; underemployment.
- Industrial relations (social partners, trade unions, collective bargaining/agreements) industrial conflict; the role of the International Labour Organisation.
- The role of cooperatives and Small and Medium-sized enterprises.
- Voluntary work.
- Occupational health and safety.
- Changing leisure patterns.
- Different leisure patterns in Malta according to the type of work, working conditions, time, and income.
- Defining key terms: politics, power, authority, government and the State.
- Citizenship: equality, freedom, and the rule of law.
- Civic rights and obligations.
- Centralisation and decentralisation of government.
- Political ideologies (democracy, dictatorship, totalitarianism, monarchies).
- Characteristics of democracy – separation of powers, pluralism, freedom of religion, freedom of expression, association and movement, representation, transparency and accountability.
- Malta’s system of government: parliamentary democracy – the role of the Parliament; the functions and role of the President of the Republic; the role of the Judiciary; the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the State; main characteristics of the Constitution; the Cabinet; the importance and role of the Opposition.
- The role of political parties in Malta.
- Historical milestones in Maltese political history since the Second World War: Independence (1964), the Republic (1974), Malta no longer a British base (1979), and Malta’s membership in the European Union (2004).
- Local governments as an example of decentralization of power: the role and function of local councils in Malta; how they are elected; projects and initiatives taken by local councils.
- Malta’s representation at supranational levels (the EU; Schengen Agreement, 2007; Member of the Euro Zone, 2008) and international levels (the Commonwealth; the United Nations).
- Malta’s representation in the European Parliament.
|7. Mass Media and Communications
- Definition of mass media and communication.
- Different forms and characteristics of mass media: newspapers, radio, fixed and mobile telephone, satellite and cable television; cinema, the internet and social networking; blogs; podcasts; electronic mail, electronic publications and e-shopping.
- Purposes of mass media (socialisation, social control, education, advocacy, entertainment, information to the public).
- The role of journalism in modern society (delivering information about social, political and economic issues).
- The role of the media in globalisation, and single ownership of mass media (media moguls, for example Rupert Murdoch, Donald Trump).
- Pluralism of the media and its implications on society.
- Media influence and its effects (for example, positive role models, media stereotyping and violence).
- Definition of religion.
- Functions of religion.
- Main world religions: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism.
- Types of religious organizations: churches, sects, new religious movements, denominations and cults.
- Secularisation and social change.
- Religious freedom and tolerance